Source and information

The statistical data in the preceding tables are derived from a number of sources, which are identified here under each data type. Where necessary, they have been edited for accuracy and consistency. All data are subject to revision.

In most cases, the data represent the year before the reporting period. However, when they are gathered from several sources, it takes longer to analyze and produce them. In these cases, the numbers reflect results from two or three years before the reporting period.

While most of the figures are calculated for the calendar year, some are based on the federal government’s fiscal year (April 1 to March 31). Numbers are rounded off. In the case of employment data, they are rounded to the nearest hundred.

It may not be possible to compare directly the data from the various sections, as they come from several sources that may compile their statistics differently from each other.

Arboreal emblems
The tree species designated or officially adopted as the arboreal emblem of Canada and of each province and territory is shown in the profiles. Nunavut does not have an arboreal emblem.

Domestic economic impact

Canadian housing start—Seasonally adjusted annual rate (SAAR)

A rate adjustment used for economic or business data that attempts to remove seasonal variations in the data.

The time of year will affect most data. Adjusting for the seasonality in data enables more accurate month-to-month comparisons. The SAAR is calculated by dividing the unadjusted annual rate for the month by its seasonality factor and creating an adjusted annual rate for the month. These adjustments are often used when economic data are released to the public.

Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, housing starts, under construction and completions, all areas, annual (units), CANSIM Table 027-0009

Contribution to gross domestic product (GDP)

A measure of the economic production that takes place within the geographical boundaries of Canada. The term “gross” means that capital consumption costs—costs associated with the depreciation of capital assets (buildings, machinery and equipment)—are included.

Figures are in current dollars and are available only for Canada. Current dollars are used to determine the actual GDP without taking into account variable factors such as inflation.

Sources: 2008–2009: Statistics Canada, GDP at basic prices in current dollars, by North American Industry Classification System, seasonally adjusted at annual rates, CANSIM Table 379-0029

2010–2012: Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), calculations using Statistics Canada, GDP in 2007 constant prices, NRCan estimated industry price deflators, CANSIM Table 379-0031

Direct jobs

Jobs held by people employed directly in forestry and logging, and in industries involved in support activities for forestry, pulp and paper product manufacturing and wood product manufacturing.

The data are sourced from Statistics Canada’s Labour Force Survey (LFS) and the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH). The LFS data are used to capture the level of self-employment in the forest sector. The SEPH data are to be used for comparing direct employment in forestry with that in other sectors.

Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey, March 2013 (special extraction) and the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours, unadjusted for seasonal variation, by type of employee for selected industries classified using the North American Industry Classification System, monthly (persons), CANSIM Table 281-0023, March 2013.

Expenditures—capital and repair

Capital expenditures: Include the costs of procuring, constructing and installing or leasing new durable plants, machinery and equipment, whether for the replacement of or addition to existing assets. Also included are all capitalized costs, such as the costs for feasibility studies and architectural, legal, installation and engineering fees; the value of capital assets put in place by firms either by contract or with the firm’s own labour force; and capitalized interest charges on loans for capital projects.

Repair expenditures: Include costs to repair and maintain structures, machinery and equipment.

Source: Statistics Canada, capital and repair expenditures, by sector and province, annual (dollars), CANSIM Table 029-0005, and capital and repair expenditures, industry sectors 31–33, manufacturing, annual (dollars), CANSIM Table 029-0009, March 2013.

Revenue from goods manufactured

Revenue from the sale of goods manufactured using materials owned by the establishment, as well as from repair work, manufacturing service charges and work contracted to others.

Source: Statistics Canada, Annual Survey of Manufactures and Logging: logging industries, principal statistics by North American Industry Classification System, annual, CANSIM Table 301-0007, and principal statistics for manufacturing industries, by North American Industry Classification System, annual, CANSIM Table 301-0006, March 2013.

Wages and salaries

The earnings, in cash or in kind, of Canadian residents for work performed before deduction of income taxes and contributions to pension funds, employment insurance and other social insurance schemes.

Source: Statistics Canada, Annual Survey of Manufactures and Logging: logging industries, principal statistics by North American Industry Classification System, annual, CANSIM Table 301-0007, and principal statistics for manufacturing industries, by North American Industry Classification System, annual, CANSIM Table 301-0006, March 2013.

Forest inventory

Area classification

A number of improvements have been made to the National Forest Inventory data compilation and statistical estimation procedures since the original baseline reports were produced. Because of these improvements, there are some minor changes to the data previously reported. The result is that area of forest, other wooded land and other land with tree cover reported this year is 396.9 million ha, a 362,000-ha reduction from the figure reported in 2012 (397.3 million ha).

Source: National Forest Inventory, updated 2006 baseline.

The National Forest Inventory uses the following definitions of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO):

  • Forest land
    Areas of land where tree canopies cover more than 10% of the total area and the trees, when mature, can grow to a height of more than 5 metres. Does not include land that is predominantly urban or used for agricultural purposes.
  • Other land with tree cover
    Areas of land where tree canopies cover more than 10% of the total area and the trees, when mature, can grow to a height of at least 5 metres. Includes treed areas on farms, in parks and gardens, and around buildings. Also includes tree plantations established mainly for purposes other than wood production, such as fruit orchards.
  • Other wooded land
    Areas of land where: 1) tree canopies cover 5–10% of the total area and the trees, when mature, can grow to a height above 5 metres; or 2) shrubs, bushes and trees together cover more than 10% of the area. These areas include treed wetlands (swamps) and land with slow-growing and scattered trees. They do not include land that is predominantly agricultural or urban.

Forest type

Source: National Forest Inventory, updated 2006 baseline.

Ownership

An important change in the data is that the federal ownership has decreased while the territorial ownership has increased as a result of devolution.

Source: National Forest Inventory, updated 2006 baseline.

Forest management

Area defoliated by insects and containing beetle-killed trees

Areas where there is tree mortality and moderate to severe defoliation.

Defoliation does not always imply mortality. For example, stands with moderate defoliation often recover and may not lose much growth. Also, defoliation is mapped on an insect species basis, and a given area may be afflicted by more than one species at a time. This may result in double or triple counting in areas affected by more than one species, exaggerating the extent of the total area defoliated.

Source: National Forestry Database.

Area planted and seeded

Total of federal, private and provincial Crown land.

Source: National Forestry Database.

Carbon emissions/removals

For forest lands affected by land-use change, the deforestation and afforestation figures reflect annual rates. Figures for CO2-equivalent (CO2e) emissions and removals reflect the current year plus the previous 20 years. Thus, the figures for CO2e emissions include residual emissions from areas deforested over the past 20 years; and the figures for CO2e removals include ongoing removals by areas afforested over the past 20 years.

Emissions and removals exactly match the most recent greenhouse gas inventory figures submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Emissions bear a positive sign. Removals bear a negative sign.

Source: Environment Canada, National Inventory Report 2013 (based on Natural Resources Canada–Canadian Forest Service National Forest Carbon Monitoring, Accounting and Report System data/analysis)

Fire

All burned areas within Canada’s forests.

Sources: All figures for the most current year are from the Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre. Data for all previous years were provided by the provinces and territories and are available from the National Forestry Database.

Forest area certified

If a forest area has been certified to more than one of the three sustainable forest management standards (Canadian Standards Association [CSA], Sustainable Forestry Initiative [SFI] and Forest Stewardship Council [FSC]), the area is counted only once. Hence, the total certifications for sustainable forest management standards may be less than the sum of the individual totals for these standards.

Source: Canadian Sustainable Forestry Certification Coalition.

Harvest (volume)

The national and provincial/territorial figures for harvesting volume include data for industrial roundwood, fuelwood and firewood.

Source: National Forestry Database.

Forest products

Domestic consumption

Consumption figures for a range of products, calculated by Natural Resources Canada–Canadian Forest Service.

This information is available only at the national level.

Production

Christmas trees
The production quantity and value are based on estimates calculated by Natural Resources Canada–Canadian Forest Service.

Sources: Statistics Canada and National Forestry Database.

Lumber
Source: Statistics Canada, lumber production, shipments and stocks, monthly (cubic metres x 1,000), CANSIM Table 303-0064, April 2013.

Maple products
Source: National Forestry Database.

Newsprint, printing and writing paper, wood pulp
The production and consumption figures are based on Pulp and Paper Products Council data.

Structural panels
The production and consumption data for structural panels (plywood and oriented strandboard) are from the APA – The Engineered Wood Association.

Trade

Balance of trade

The difference between the value of the goods and services that a country exports and the value of the goods and services that it imports.

If a country’s exports exceed its imports, it has a trade surplus. If imports exceed exports, the country has a trade deficit.

Source: Statistics Canada, merchandise trade data (special extraction), monthly data.